European larch canker disease, caused by a fungus, Lachnellula (Dasyscypha) willkommii, was first reported in North America in 1927 (Spaulding and Siggers, 1927). The disease was effectively eradicated from Massachusetts by 1965 (Tegethoff, 1965), but a new infestation was found in Canada in 1980 (Magasi and Pond, 1982). Subsequently, infestations were observed in the coastal areas of eastern Maine (Miller-Weeks and Stark, 1983). In those areas where the disease is present, the canker has infested and damaged 50 to 100 percent of the larch in plantations or young managed stands (USDA Forest Service 1991). The severe impact of the canker on larch in parts of Europe and its potential impact on North American species has prompted Environment Canada, the USDA Forest Service, and Maine Forest Service to issue public-information flyers urging extreme caution in transporting cuttings and seedlings (USDA Forest Service, 1991).
Magasi, L.P. and S.E. Pond. 1982. European larch canker: A new disease in Canada and a new North American host record. Plant Dis. 66: 339.
Miller-Weeks, M. and D. Stark. 1983. European larch canker in Maine. Plant Dis. 67: 448.
Spaulding, P. and P.V. Siggers. 1927. The European larch canker in America. Science 66: 480-481.
Tegethoff, A.C. 1965. Resurvey for European larch canker in Essex County, Massachusetts, 1965. Plant Dis. Rep. 49: 834
United States Department of Agriculture, Forest Service. 1991. Pest Risk Assessment of the Importation of Larch from Siberia and the Soviet Far East, Miscellaneous Publication No. 1495, September, 1991.