The European spruce beetle is found across Europe and Asia (USDA APHIS & Forest Service, 2000), where it causes considerable damage. This beetle is one of the most commonly detected pests traveling on solid wood packing material, even after the adoption of the 1995 regulations intended to prevent introductions of bark-associated insects (USDA APHIS & Forest Service, 2000). Several times, the beetle has been found in dunnage or warehouses after inspections (Hofacker, 1993; LaGasa et al. 1997; USDA APHIS & Forest Service, 2000); fortunately, in these cases the pest was eradicated before it became established. The European spruce beetle carries various fungi, some of which can be extremely pathogenic. If introduced beetles were accompanied by a virulent fungus, and native beetles also spread the fungus, “It could.be as disastrous to North American spruce as the Dutch elm disease was to elms” (USDA Forest Service, 1991).
Ips typographus L.